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Amputation is the removal of a limb or body part by trauma, medical illness, or surgery.[1] As a surgical measure, it is used to control pain or a disease process in the affected limb, such as malignancy or gangrene. In some cases, it is carried out on individuals as a preventive surgery for such problems. A special case is that of congenital amputation, a congenital disorder, where fetal limbs have been cut off by constrictive bands.[2]

In some countries, such as Afghanistan and Iran,[3] amputation was proposed, was formerly used, or is currently used to punish people who committed crimes.[4][5][6][2]

Amputation has also been used as a tactic in war and acts of terrorism; it may also occur as a war injury. In some cultures and religions, minor amputations or mutilations are considered a ritual accomplishment.[7][8][9] When done by a person, the person executing the amputation is an "amputator".[10][11][2]

Types related to HGM

The Wikipedia article Amputation[2] lists various types of amputation, for legs, arms, and other body parts. In relation to genital mutilation, the following amputation types are of relevance:


Neurological disorders related to amputation


Acrotomophilia refers to a paraphilia in which an individual expresses strong sexual interest in amputees.[12]


Apotemnophilia is a neurological disorder in which otherwise sane and rational individuals express a strong and specific desire for the amputation of a healthy limb or limbs.[13] There is often a sexual interest in becoming an amputee.[14]

One of the piers of circumfetishist Jake H. Waskett said: “Some of us who do get erotic and sexual gratification out of not only the finished product, but also the procedure itself.” The “finished product” is the sexual interest in becoming an amputee and the “procedure itself” is akin to the IKEA effect that was previously discussed.

Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID)

Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID), formerly known as Amputee Identity Disorder, is a neurological and psychological disorder that makes sufferers feel they would be happier living as an amputee. It is typically accompanied by the desire to amputate one or more healthy limbs to achieve that end.[15]

See also

External links

  • REFweb Amputation, Wikipedia. Retrieved 26 December 2023.


  1. REFweb Anonymous. Amputation, The Free Dictionary by Farlex. Retrieved 27 September 2023.
  2. a b c d REFweb Wikipedia article: Amputation. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  3. REFnews Fathi, Nazila (11 January 2008)."Spate of Executions and Amputations in Iran", The New York Times. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  4. REFconference Chuback, Jennifer E.: The history of rhinoplasty, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. University of Calgary. (March 2005)
  5. REFjournal Kocharkarn W. Traumatic amputation of the penis. Brazilian Journal of Urology. August 2000; 26: 385–389.
  6. REFbook Peters R (2005): Crime and Punishment in Islamic Law: Theory and Practice from the Sixteenth to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521792264.
  7. REFjournal Bosmia AN, Griessenauer CJ, Tubbs RS. Yubitsume: ritualistic self-amputation of proximal digits among the Yakuza. Journal of Injury and Violence Research. July 2014; 6(2): 54–6. PMID. DOI.
  8. REFjournal Kepe T. 'Secrets' that kill: crisis, custodianship and responsibility in ritual male circumcision in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Social Science & Medicine. March 2010; 70(5): 729–35. PMID. DOI.
  9. REFjournal Grisaru N, Lezer S, Belmaker RH. Ritual female genital surgery among Ethiopian Jews. Archives of Sexual Behavior. April 1997; 26(2): 211–5. PMID. DOI.
  10. REFweb Amputator, Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  11. REFweb Amputee, Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  12. REFjournal Solvang P. The amputee body desired: Beauty destabilized? Disability re-valued?. Sex and Disability. 2007; 25: 51–64.
  13. REFjournal Everaerd W. A Case of Apotemnophilia: A Handicap as Sexual Preference. American Journal of Psychotherapy. 1983; 37: 285–293.
  14. REFjournal Brang G. Apotemnophilia: A Neurological Disorder. Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropsychology. 2008; 19: 1305-6.
  15. REFjournal Large MM. Body identity disorder. Psychol Med. October 2007; 37(10): 1513; author reply 1513–4.