Female genital mutilation
Female genital mutilation, frequently called by its initialism (FGM), is defined as the partial or total removal of external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. Female genital mutilation violates the same human rights as does male genital mutilation (MGM).
The World Health Organization describes four types of FGM:
Type 1: this is the partial or total removal of the clitoral glans (the external and visible part of the clitoris, which is a sensitive part of the female genitals), and/or the prepuce/ clitoral hood (the fold of skin surrounding the clitoral glans).
Type 2: this is the partial or total removal of the clitoral glans and the labia minora (the inner folds of the vulva), with or without removal of the labia majora (the outer folds of skin of the vulva ).
Type 3: Also known as infibulation, this is the narrowing of the vaginal opening through the creation of a covering seal. The seal is formed by cutting and repositioning the labia minora, or labia majora, sometimes through stitching, with or without removal of the clitoral prepuce/clitoral hood and glans (Type I FGM).
Type 4: This includes all other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, e.g. pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterizing the genital area.
- (3 February 2020).
Female genital mutilation, World Health Organization. Retrieved 27 December 2021.