Genital cutting/List of countries

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In males, circumcision consists of removing the prepuce of the penis (the foreskin). Circumcision is practiced on young Muslim boys (known as khitan) and on newborn Jewish infants (known as Brit Milah), as well as on non-Jewish or Muslim infants in the United States as a hospital procedure.[1][2] It used to be, but is no longer, a common procedure in Australia[3] and Canada.[4][5] Circumcision for cosmetic reasons is banned in public hospitals in Australia.[6]

The procedures of female genital mutilation (FGM) are significantly more extensive.[7] FGM has no medical benefits and can cause serious harm to women's physical and mental health, depending on the procedure and whether it was performed by traditional cutters or medical personnel.[8] Known until the early 1990s as "female circumcision", the World Health Organization (WHO) and other agencies began referring to it as "female genital mutilation" to remove any analogy to male circumcision.[9][7] It is outlawed around the world, including in many of the countries in which it is most heavily concentrated.[10] Found mainly in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, the practice is divided by the WHO into four types:[8]

  • Type 1 (clitoridectomy) is the partial or total removal of the clitoral glans; "in very rare cases", according to the WHO, it involves removal of the clitoral hood only (the prepuce, or skin around the clitoral glans).
  • Type 2 (excision) is the partial or total removal of the clitoral glans, inner labia, and sometimes the outer labia.
  • Type 3 (infibulation) is the removal of the inner and outer labia and the creation of a seal over the vagina by stitching the two sides or by otherwise allowing them to bond, leaving a small hole for the passage of urine and menstrual blood; this is performed with and without clitoridectomy.
  • Type 4 is "all other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, e.g. pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterizing the genital area".[8]


Table

'Prevalence of genital cutting by sex, age and country'[Notes 1]


Country Male Female
0-14 15+ Banned 0-14[Notes 2] 15+ Banned
Afghanistan [11] 98
.1 [12] 99
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Albania [12] 31
.5 [12] 36
.8 No N/A N/A Yes
Algeria 97
.9 [13] 97
.9 No [14] 0 [14] 0 Yes
American Samoa 95 [13] 95 No N/A N/A Yes
Andorra 1
.1 [13] 1
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Angola [12] 96
.1 [12] 96
.2 No N/A N/A Yes
Anguilla 0
.3 [13] 0
.3 No N/A N/A Yes
Antigua and Barbuda 0
.6 [13] 0
.6 No N/A N/A Yes
Argentina 2
.9 [13] 2
.9 No N/A N/A Yes
Armenia 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Aruba 0
.46 [13] 0
.46 No N/A N/A Yes
Australia [15][16][17] 10 [18] 40 No N/A N/A Yes
Austria 5
.8 [13] 5
.8 No N/A N/A Yes
Azerbaijan 96
.9 [12] 96
.9 No N/A N/A Yes
Bahamas 0
.2 [13] 0
.2 No N/A N/A Yes
Bahrain 81
.2 [13] 81
.2 No N/A N/A Yes
Bangladesh 93
.2 [19] 93
.2 No N/A N/A Yes
Barbados 0
.9 [13] 0
.9 No N/A N/A Yes
Belarus 0
.32 [13] 0
.32 No N/A N/A Yes
Belgium 22
.6 [20] 22
.6 No N/A N/A Yes
Belize 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Benin [12] 95
.5 [12] 94
.7 No [21] 0
.2 [21] 9 Yes
Bermuda 0
.8 [13] 0
.8 No N/A N/A Yes
Bhutan 1
.0 [13] 1
.0 No N/A N/A Yes
Bolivia 0
.11 [13] 0
.11 No N/A N/A Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina 41
.6 [13] 41
.6 No N/A N/A Yes
Botswana 15
.1 [22][23] 15
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Brazil 1
.3 [24] 1
.3 No N/A N/A Yes
British Virgin Islands 1
.2 [13] 1
.2 No N/A N/A Yes
Brunei 51
.9 [13] 51
.9 No N/A N/A Yes
Bulgaria 13
.4 [13] 13
.4 No N/A N/A Yes
Burkina Faso [12] 85
.1 [12] 88
.7 No [21] 13 [21] 76 Yes
Burundi [12] 19
.3 [12] 41
.6 No N/A N/A Yes
Cabo Verde 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Cambodia 2
.1 [12] 2
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Cameroon [12] 94
.9 [12] 94 No [12] 1
.5 [21] 1 Yes
Canada 31
.9 [25] 31
.9 No N/A N/A Yes
Cayman Islands 0
.2 [13] 0
.2 No N/A N/A Yes
Central African Republic 63
.0 [26] 63
.0 No [21] 1 [21] 24 Yes
Chad 96
.5 [12] 96
.5 No [21] 10 [21] 38 Yes
Chile 0
.2 [13] 0
.21 No N/A N/A Yes
China 14
.0 [27] 14
.0 No N/A N/A Yes
Christmas Island 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Cocos Islands 95 [13] 95 No N/A N/A Yes
Colombia 1
.5 [28] 1
.5 No [29] 0
.47 [29] 0
.47 Yes
Comoros [12] 100
.0 [12] 99
.5 No [30] 0 [30] 0 Yes
Congo, Democratic Republic of [12] 95
.2 [12] 97
.2 No N/A N/A Yes
Congo, Republic of [12] 100
.0 [12] 99
.2 No N/A N/A Yes
Cook Islands 95 [13] 95 No N/A N/A Yes
Costa Rica 0
.15 [13] 0
.15 No N/A N/A Yes
Côte d'Ivoire [12] 94
.0 [12] 96
.7 No [21] 10 [21] 37 Yes
Croatia 1
.34 [13] 1
.34 No N/A N/A Yes
Cuba 0
.11 [13] 0
.11 No N/A N/A Yes
Curacao 0
.07 [13] 0
.07 No N/A N/A Yes
Cyprus 22
.7 [13] 22
.7 No N/A N/A Yes
Czech Republic 0
.14 [13] 0
.14 No N/A N/A Yes
Denmark 5
.3 [31][32] 5
.3 No N/A N/A Yes
Djibouti 96
.5 [26] 96
.5 No [21] 49 [21] 93 Yes
Dominica 0
.2 [13] 0
.2 No N/A N/A Yes
Dominican Republic 12
.7 [12] 12
.7 No N/A N/A Yes
Ecuador 0
.11 [13] 0
.11 No N/A N/A Yes
Egypt 94
.7 [13] 94
.7 No [21] 14 [21] 87 Yes
El Salvador 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Equatorial Guinea 87 [33] 87 No N/A N/A Yes
Eritrea 97
.2 [26] 97
.2 No [21] 33 [21] 83 Yes
Estonia 0
.25 [13] 0
.25 No N/A N/A Yes
Ethiopia [12] 94
.7 [12] 91
.7 No [21] 16 [21] 65 Yes
Falkland Islands 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Faroe Islands 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Fiji 55 [13] 55 No N/A N/A Yes
Finland 3
.0 [34] 3
.0 No N/A N/A Yes
France 14 [13] 14 No N/A N/A Yes
French Polynesia 78 [13] 78 No N/A N/A Yes
Gabon [12] 100
.0 [12] 99
.2 No N/A N/A Yes
Gambia 94
.5 [26] 94
.5 No [21] 56 [21] 75 Yes
Palestine 99
.9 [13] 99
.9 No N/A N/A Yes
Georgia 10
.6 [13] 10
.6 No N/A N/A Yes
Germany [35]

[36] 10

.9 [35] 6
.7 No N/A N/A Yes
Ghana [12] 94
.2 [12] 95
.6 No [21] 1 [21] 4 Yes
Gibraltar 6 [13] 6 No N/A N/A Yes
Greece 4
.7 [13] 4
.7 No N/A N/A Yes
Greenland 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Grenada 0
.3 [13] 0
.3 No N/A N/A Yes
Guam 95 [13] 95 No N/A N/A Yes
Guatemala 2
.9 [12] 2
.9 No N/A N/A Yes
Guernsey 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Guinea [12] 98
.5 [12] 99
.0 No [21] 45 [21] 97 Yes
Guinea-Bissau 93
.3 [26] 93
.3 No [21] 29 [21] 45 Yes
Guyana 12
.1 [12] 12
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Haiti [12] 8
.4 [12] 7
.6 No N/A N/A Yes
Holy See 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Honduras 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Hong Kong 28 [37] 28 No N/A N/A Yes
Hungary 0
.8 [13] 0
.8 No N/A N/A Yes
Iceland 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
India 15
.7 [12] 15
.7 No N/A N/A Yes
Indonesia 92
.5 [33] 92
.5 No [21] 49 [38] 95
.1 Yes
Iran 99
.7 [13] 99
.7 No N/A N/A Yes
Iraq 98
.9 [13] 98
.9 No [21] 3 [21] 8 Yes
Ireland 0
.9 [13] 0
.9 No N/A N/A Yes
Isle of Man 0
.2 [13] 0
.2 No N/A N/A Yes
Israel 91
.7 [13] 91
.7 No N/A N/A Yes
Italy 2
.6 [13] 2
.6 No N/A N/A Yes
Jamaica 14
.0 [39] 14
.0 No N/A N/A Yes
Japan 9
.0 [40] 9
.0 No N/A N/A Yes
Jersey 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Jordan 98
.8 [13] 98
.8 No N/A N/A Yes
Kazakhstan 56
.4 [13] 56
.4 No N/A N/A Yes
Kenya [12] 91
.0 [12] 92
.6 No [21] 3 [21] 21 Yes
Kiribati 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
North Korea 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
South Korea [41] 22
.2 [41] 81
.6 No N/A N/A Yes
Kosovo 91
.7 [13] 91
.7 No N/A N/A Yes
Kuwait 86
.4 [13] 86
.4 No N/A N/A Yes
Kyrgyzstan 91
.9 [12] 91
.9 No N/A N/A Yes
Laos 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Latvia 0
.4 [13] 0
.4 No N/A N/A Yes
Lebanon 59
.7 [13] 59
.7 No N/A N/A Yes
Lesotho [12] 70
.4 [12] 72
.3 No N/A N/A Yes
Liberia 99
.1 [12] 99
.1 No N/A [21] 44 Yes
Libya 96
.6 [13] 96
.6 No N/A N/A Yes
Liechtenstein 4
.8 [13] 4
.8 No N/A N/A Yes
Lithuania 0
.2 [13] 0
.2 No N/A N/A Yes
Luxembourg 2
.4 [13] 2
.4 No N/A N/A Yes
Macau 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
North Macedonia 33
.9 [13] 33
.9 No N/A N/A Yes
Madagascar [12] 95
.5 [12] 94
.6 No N/A N/A Yes
Malawi [12] 30
.0 [12] 28
.0 No N/A N/A Yes
Malaysia 61
.4 [13] 61
.4 No N/A N/A Yes
Maldives 98
.4 [13] 98
.4 No [12] 13
.4 [12] 18
.5 Yes
Mali 97
.8 [12] 97
.8 No [21] 73 [21] 83 No
Malta 0
.3 [13] 0
.3 No N/A N/A Yes
Marshall Islands 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Mauritania 99
.2 [26] 99
.2 No [21] 51 [21] 67 Yes
Mauritius 16
.6 [13] 16
.6 No N/A N/A Yes
Mexico 15
.4 [42] 15
.4 No N/A N/A Yes
Micronesia 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Moldova [12] 0
.5 [12] 0
.9 No N/A N/A Yes
Monaco 0
.5 [13] 0
.5 No N/A N/A Yes
Mongolia 4
.4 [13] 4
.4 No N/A N/A Yes
Montenegro 18
.5 [13] 18
.5 No N/A N/A Yes
Montserrat 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Morocco 99
.9 [13] 99
.9 No N/A N/A Yes
Mozambique [12] 64
.5 [12] 62
.7 No N/A N/A Yes
Myanmar 3
.9 [12] 3
.9 No N/A N/A Yes
Namibia [12] 31
.4 [12] 26
.5 No N/A N/A Yes
Nauru 95
.0 [13] 95
.0 No N/A N/A Yes
Nepal 4
.2 [13] 4
.2 No N/A N/A Yes
Netherlands 5
.7 [13] 5
.7 No N/A N/A Yes
New Caledonia 50
.0 [13] 50
.0 No N/A N/A Yes
New Zealand [43] 10
.0 [44] 33
.0 No N/A N/A Yes
Nicaragua 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Niger 99
.4 [12] 99
.4 No [12] 1
.2 [21] 2 Yes
Nigeria 98
.9 [12] 98
.9 No [21] 13 [21] 18 Yes
Niue 95 [13] 95 No N/A N/A Yes
Norfolk Island 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Northern Mariana Islands 90 [13] 90 No N/A N/A Yes
Norway 3
.0 [13] 3
.0 No N/A N/A Yes
Oman 87
.7 [13] 87
.7 No N/A N/A Yes
Pakistan 96
.4 [13] 96
.4 No N/A N/A Yes
Palau 95 [13] 95 No N/A N/A Yes
Panama 1
.0 [13] 1
.0 No N/A N/A Yes
Papua New Guinea 10
.1 [13] 10
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Paraguay 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Peru 3
.7 [13] 3
.7 No N/A N/A Yes
Philippines 91
.7 [13] 91
.7 No N/A N/A Yes
Pitcairn Islands 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Poland 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Portugal 0
.6 [13] 0
.6 No N/A N/A Yes
Puerto Rico 0
.14 [13] 0
.14 No N/A N/A Yes
Qatar 77
.5 [13] 77
.5 No N/A N/A Yes
Romania 0
.3 [13] 0
.3 No N/A N/A Yes
Russia 11
.8 [13] 11
.8 No N/A N/A Yes
Rwanda [12] 11
.9 [12] 27
.7 No N/A N/A Yes
Saint Barthelemy 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Saint Helena 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Saint Kitts 0
.3 [13] 0
.3 No N/A N/A Yes
Saint Lucia 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Saint Martin 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Saint Pierre 0
.2 [13] 0
.2 No N/A N/A Yes
Saint Vincent 1
.7 [13] 1
.7 No N/A N/A Yes
Samoa 95 [13] 95 No N/A N/A Yes
San Marino 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Sao Tome and Principe 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Saudi Arabia 97
.1 [13] 97
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Senegal 98
.2 [12] 98
.2 No [21] 14 [21] 23 Yes
Serbia 3
.7 [13] 3
.7 No N/A N/A Yes
Seychelles 1
.1 [13] 1
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Sierra Leone 99
.4 [12] 99
.4 No [21] 8 [21] 86 No
Singapore 14
.9 [13] 14
.9 No N/A N/A Yes
Sint Maarten 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Slovakia 0
.2 [13] 0
.15 No N/A N/A Yes
Slovenia 8
.5 [45] 8
.5 No N/A N/A Yes
Solomon Islands 95 [13] 95 No N/A N/A Yes
Somalia 93
.5 [46][47] 93
.5 No [21] 46 [21] 98 Yes
South Africa [12] 45
.5 [12] 55
.2 No N/A N/A Yes
South Sudan 23
.6 [48][49] 23
.6 No N/A N/A Yes
Spain 6
.6 [13] 6
.6 No N/A N/A Yes
Sri Lanka 8
.5 [13] 8
.5 No N/A N/A Yes
Sudan 39
.4 [46][26] 39
.4 No [21] 30 [21] 87 No
Suriname 15
.9 [13] 15
.9 No N/A N/A Yes
Svalbard 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Swaziland 8
.6 [12] 8
.6 No N/A N/A Yes
Sweden 5
.1 [13] 5
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Switzerland 5
.9 [13] 5
.9 No N/A N/A Yes
Syria 92
.8 [13] 92
.8 No N/A N/A Yes
Taiwan 8
.3 [50] 8
.3 No N/A N/A Yes
Tajikistan 99 [13] 99 No N/A N/A Yes
Tanzania 80
.4 [12] 80
.4 No [21] 0
.4 [21] 10 Yes
Thailand 11
.9 [51] 11
.9 No N/A N/A Yes
Timor-Leste [12] 6
.9 [12] 9
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Togo [12] 98
.7 [12] 97
.8 No [21] 0
.3 [21] 5 Yes
Tokelau 95 [13] 95 No N/A N/A Yes
Tonga 95 [13] 95 No N/A N/A Yes
Trinidad and Tobago 5
.8 [13] 5
.8 No N/A N/A Yes
Tunisia 99
.8 [13] 99
.8 No N/A N/A Yes
Turkey 98
.6 [13] 98
.6 No N/A N/A Yes
Turkmenistan 93
.4 [13] 93
.4 No N/A N/A Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Tuvalu 95 [13] 95 No N/A N/A Yes
Uganda [12] 33
.2 [12] 45
.3 No [21] 1 [21] 0 Yes
Ukraine 2
.2 [12] 2
.2 No N/A N/A Yes
United Arab Emirates 76
.0 [13] 76
.0 No N/A N/A Yes
United Kingdom [52][53] 3
.0 [54][55] 8
.5 No N/A N/A Yes
United States [56] 52
.1 [57] 80
.5 No N/A N/A Yes
Uruguay 0
.62 [13] 0
.62 No N/A N/A Yes
Uzbekistan 96
.5 [13] 96
.5 No N/A N/A Yes
Vanuatu 95
.0 [13] 95
.0 No N/A N/A Yes
Venezuela 0
.3 [13] 0
.3 No N/A N/A Yes
Vietnam 0
.2 [13] 0
.2 No N/A N/A Yes
United States Virgin Islands 0
.6 [13] 0
.6 No N/A N/A Yes
Wallis and Futuna 0
.1 [13] 0
.1 No N/A N/A Yes
Western Sahara 99
.6 [13] 99
.6 No N/A N/A Yes
Yemen 99
.0 [13] 99
.0 No [12] 18
.5 [21] 19 Yes
Zambia [12] 18
.3 [12] 21
.6 No N/A N/A Yes
Zimbabwe [12] 14
.3 [12] 14
.0 No N/A N/A Yes

Notes

  1. Mostly all international data, including that republished by the other two most cited sources here, Morris et al. (2016) and UNICEF, for circumcision and FGM respectively, is from USAID's Demographic and Health Surveys. Wherever possible, the primary, rather than the secondary, source is cited. The prevalence rates reflect the most recent surveys available, and are adjusted for sample biases against age distributions. Cells aggregating data across sexes and ages are without citation and are estimated from segmented data along with each country's age distributions and sex ratio. Data missing or unavailable for FGM is denoted by N/a. Data without citation for prevalence of circumcision among boys aged 0–14 is copied from sourced data for males aged 15 and older, as mostly all ritual circumcisions are done either in childhood, right before puberty (e.g. Islam) or days after birth (e.g. Islam and Judaism).
  2. Figures as reported by the children's mothers.

References

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  24. REFjournal Korkes F, Silva JL, Pompeo ACL. Circumcisions for medical reasons in the Brazilian public health system: epidemiology and trends. Einstein (Sao Paulo, Brazil). July 2012; 10(3): 342–346. PMID. DOI.
  25. Public Health Agency of Canada. What Mothers Say. Data Tables to The Maternity Experiences Survey (MES) 2006–2007. Table 38. 2011. p.267.
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