(The following quoted text is from the free Wikipedia:)
Hypospadias is a common variation in fetal development of the penis in which the urethra does not open from its usual location in the head of the penis. It is the second-most common birth abnormality of the male reproductive system, affecting about one of every 250 males at birth. Roughly 90% of cases are the less serious distal hypospadias, in which the urethral opening (the meatus) is on or near the head of the penis glans. The remainder have proximal hypospadias, in which the meatus is all the way back on the shaft of the penis, near or within the scrotum. Shiny tissue that should have made the urethra extends from the meatus to the tip of the glans; this tissue is called the urethral plate.
The prevalance of hypospadias is highest in North America and lowest in Asia.
The foreskin frequently does not develop normally. The ventral portion of the foreskin may not develop so the foreskin takes the form of a dorsal flap.
Each case must be evaluated to determine how best to proceed. Mild cases may not require repair.
If surgical repair is to be undertaken, then van der Horst & de Wall (2017) recommend that surgical repair be carried out after four months of age and prior to eighteen months of age.
- Black, Larissa.
So Your Son has Hypospadias, Your Whole Baby. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
Hypospadias, Boston Children's Hospital. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
What is Hypospadias, https://www.urologyhealth.org/, Urology Care Foundation. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- Snodgrass, Warren (2012):
130: Hypospadias, in: Campbell-Walsh Urology. Allan Wein, Meredith F Campbell, Patrick C Walsh (ed.). Edition: 10. pp. 3503–3536. Elsevier. ISBN 978-1-4160-6911-9.
- van der Horst HJ, de Wall LL. Hypospadias, all there is to know. Eur J Pediatr. April 2017; 176(4): 435-441. PMID. PMC. DOI. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- Winship BB, Ruston HG, Pohl HG, et al. In pursuit of the perfect penis: Hypospadias repair outcomes. J Pediatr Urol. June 2017; 13(3): 285-288. PMID. DOI. Retrieved 23 October 2019.