John Money

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John Money

The late John Money, Ph.D.[a 1], (8 July 1921 in Morrinsville, New Zealand – 7 July 2006 in Towson, MA, USA), was a psychologist, sexologist and author who was a member of the faculty of Johns Hopkins University.

Dr. Money was a prolific writer. He published several books and numerous articles in the medical literature. PubMed takes 23 pages to list his articles.

Dr. Money had an interest in gender-related issues such as intersex and gender reassignment. Dr. Money created the Johns Hopkins Gender Identity Clinic in 1965. The clinic started gender reassignment surgery in 1966. Gender reassignment surgery was performed on adults and also on children in apparent violation of the children's right to physical integrity.

Circumcision tragedy

Bruce Peter Reimer was one of two healthy identical twin boys born in Winnipeg, MB, Canada on 22 August 1965. His twin brother was Brian Reimer.

Although it has long been known that boys are born with the inner prepuce fused with the underlying glans penis by a synechia and is non-retractable for an extended period,[1] the two boys were improperly and erroneously diagnosed with phimosis at the age of six months.

Although there were no valid medical indications for circumcision, the parents scheduled the twin boys for medically-unnecessary, non-therapeutic circumcision surgery by Dr. Jean-Marie Huot, a general practitioner in Winnipeg.

Bruce was scheduled first. Dr. Huot bizarrely and inexplicably chose to conduct the circumcision with the use of an electrocautery device. The device burned Bruce's penis beyond repair.

Brian's circumcision was cancelled after Bruce's disaster. Brian's foreskin later spontaneously became retractable, illustrating the incorrectness of the phimosis diagnosis.

Money's treatment of Bruce Reimer

Bruce's parents, Janet and Ron Reimer, sought out what was thought to be the best advice on the care of a boy with no penis, so they consulted Dr. Money and the Johns Hopkins Gender Identity Clinic.

Although Bruce Reimer was an XY male with XY genes in every cell in his body, Dr. Money believed that Bruce could be re-assigned as female. Therefore his name was changed to "Brenda", and he received an orchiectomy (castration).[2] He was dressed and reared as a girl.

Dr. Money continued to see Bruce/Brenda and his/her twin Brian annually. They were forced to simulate sex with one another.

Bruce/Brenda was given estrogen to induce breast growth.

When Bruce/Brenda was 13, he rebelled and refused to see Dr. Money again, which effectively ended Dr. Money's treatment. Both Bruce/Brenda and Brian Reimer reported feeling traumatized by Dr. Money's treatment.

The aftermath

Bruce/Brenda changed his/her name to David and lived as a male since age 15. He had a double mastectomy to remove the breasts created by Dr. Money's estrogen.

Brian Reimer died of a drug overdose at age 36.

David Reimer committed suicide at age 38.



Dr. Money developed Parkinson's disease as he aged. He died at age 84 in Towson, Maryland in 2006.

See also

External links


  1. REFjournal Deibart GA. The separation of the prepuce in the human penis. Anat Rec. November 1933; 57: 387-99. DOI. Retrieved 12 March 2023.
  2. REFweb (2008). orchiectomy, Free Dictionay by Farlex. Retrieved 12 March 3023.


  1. REFweb Doctor of Philosophy, Wikipedia. Retrieved 16 June 2021. (Also abbreviated as D.Phil.)