Pre-ejaculate

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Pre-ejaculate on the glans of the penis

Pre-ejaculate (also known as pre-ejaculatory fluid, pre-seminal fluid or Cowper's fluid, and colloquially as pre-cum)[1] is a clear, colorless, very slippery liquid that is produced by the Cowper's glands. [2] and discharged from the urethra of males. It collects under the foreskin of normal, foreskinned males where it functions as a lubricant at times of sexual arousal, masturbation or sexual intercourse. They are also called the bulbo-urethral glands and are the male equivalent of the Bartholin's Glands.[1]

Function and risks

(The following text or part of it is quoted from the free Wikipedia article Pre-ejaculate: Function and risks:)
Pre-ejaculate neutralizes residual acidity in the urethra caused by urine, creating a more favorable environment for the passage of sperm.[3] The vagina is normally acidic, so the deposit of pre-ejaculate before the emission of semen may change the vaginal environment to promote sperm survival.[4] Pre-ejaculate also acts as a lubricant during sexual activity,[4] and plays a role in semen coagulation.[4]

Low levels or no sperm exists in pre-ejaculate, although studies examined small samples of men.[5][6] Two contrary studies found mixed evidence, including individual cases of a high sperm concentration.[7][8] Popular belief  — dating to a 1966 Masters and Johnson study[9]  — stated that pre-ejaculate may contain sperm that can cause pregnancy, which is a common basis of argument against the use of coitus interruptus (withdrawal) as a contraceptive method.[5][6]

Studies have demonstrated the presence of HIV in most pre-ejaculate samples from infected men.[6][10][11]

Distribution

The quantity of pre-ejaculate produced various widely between individuals. Production of pre-ejaculate may be triggered by erotic thoughts alone.

Some observers believe that, on average, circumcised males tend to produce less pre-ejaculate than foreskinned males, due to loss of sexual sensation received by the autonomic nervous system from the ridged band and other nerves of the foreskin.

See also

External links

  • REFweb Wikipedia article: Pre-ejaculate. Retrieved 10 January 2023.
  • REFweb Lane, S. Nicole (2 October 2022). What Is Precum?, Verywell Health. Retrieved 16 January 2023.

References

  1. a b REFweb (2005). Pre-ejaculate, Free Dictionary by Farlex. Retrieved 9 January 2023.
  2. REFweb (2005). Cowper's glands., Free Dictionary by Farlex. Retrieved 9 January 2023.
  3. REFjournal Chughtai B, Sawas A, O'Malley RL, Naik RR, Ali Khan S, Pentyala S. A neglected gland: a review of Cowper's gland PDF. Int J Androl. April 2005; 28(2): 74–7. PMID.
  4. a b c REFjournal Chudnovsky A, Niederberger CS. Copious Pre-Ejaculation: Small Glands—Major Headaches. J Androl. 2007; 28(3): 374–5. PMID.
  5. a b REFjournal Zukerman Z, Weiss DB, Orvieto R. Short Communication: Does Preejaculatory Penile Secretion Originating from Cowper's Gland Contain Sperm? PDF. Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics. April 2003; 20(4): 157–9. PMID. PMC.
  6. a b c REFjournal Researchers find no sperm in pre-ejaculate fluid. Contraceptive Technology Update. October 1993; 14(10): 154–156. PMID.
  7. REFjournal Killick SR, Leary C, Trussell J, Guthrie KA. Sperm content of pre-ejaculatory fluid. Human Fertility. 2011; 14(1): 48–52. PMID. PMC.
  8. REFjournal Kovavisarach E, Lorthanawanich S, Muangsamran P. Presence of Sperm in Pre-Ejaculatory Fluid of Healthy Males PDF. J Med Assoc Thai. 2016; 99 Suppl 2: S38–41. PMID.
  9. REFbook Masters WH (1966): Johnson, V.E.. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co. P. 211.
  10. REFjournal Pudney J, Oneta M, Mayer K, Seage G, Anderson D. Pre-ejaculatory fluid as potential vector for sexual transmission of HIV-1. Lancet. 1992; 340(8833): 1470. PMID.
  11. REFjournal Ilaria G, Jacobs JL, Polsky B, et al. Detection of HIV-1 DNA sequences in pre-ejaculatory fluid. Lancet. 1992; 340(8833): 1469. PMID.