In a February 2009 report produced by USAID, a U.S. government agency, researchers found that circumcised men were more likely to have HIV in 10 of 18 (African) countries with data available. The report found condom use, not circumcision, to be correlated with HIV status. Despite this report, USAID is listed as a contributing partner and a sponsor for the "Clearinghouse on Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention."
Accelerated Saturation Initiative
In November 2010, USAID issued a "technical brief" on male circumcision as HIV prevention. In the report, USAID states that it is supporting Swaziland's "Accelerated Saturation Initiative" for circumcision by providing "implementation support together with the [U.S.] Department of Defense, the Peace Corps, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)." The report goes on to say that USAID, along with UNAIDS, is providing technical and financial assistance in the studying circumcision programs in 14 African countries.
Voluntary Male Medical Circumcision
USAID's support of what they call the "Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Program: VMMC" also focused on Kenya. USAID funded a VMMC based circumcision campaign propaganda video to air on television in South Africa.
No Clear Pattern of Association
|“||Levels and Spread of HIV Seroprevalence and Associated Factors: Evidence from National Household Surveys |
There appears no clear pattern of association between male circumcision and HIV prevalence—in 8 of 18 countries with data, HIV prevalence is lower among circumcised men, while in the remaining 10 countries it is higher.
A USAID-funded organization called "C-Change" in Kenya is supporting "Male Circumcision Communication Toolkits" with the stated goal of "Creating demand for VMMC (circumcision)" and "facilitating a scale-up of materials" and capacity to perform more circumcisions from the government of Kenya. One of the ways C-Change is creating demand is by spreading information stating that "VMMC" prevents STI's.
One issue of C-Change's publication included a study measuring media coverage of circumcision as HIV prevention and strategies for keeping media reports positive.
HIV/AIDS, Doctors Opposing Circumcision. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
- USAID / Mishra Vinod / Amy Medley / Rathavuth Hong / Yuan Gu / Bryant Robey (2009)."DHS Comparative Reports 22", Macro International, Inc.. Retrieved 24 March 2011. "Levels and spread of HIV seroprevalence and associated factors: Evidence from national household surveys"
Male Circumcision Clearinghouse: Partners and Contributors, Clearinghouse for Male Circumcision on HIV Prevention. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
- (July 2010)."National AIDS and STI Control Programme", Government of Kenya. Retrieved 24 March 2011. "Progress Report on Kenya's Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Programme"
Research: Male Circumcision and HIV Prevention, USAID. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
Male Circumcision, USAID. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
- Clark, S. / I. Fua (May 2003)."Program and Policy Implications for HIV Prevention and Reproductive Health", USAID/AIDSMark. Retrieved 24 March 2011. "Male Circumcision: Current Epidemiological and Field Evidence"
Fighting HIV with Circumcision, USAID. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
- (November 2010)."Technical Issue Brief", USAID. Retrieved 25 March 2011. "Medical Male Circumcision and HIV Prevention"
Kenya / HIV/AIDS, USAID. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
USAID/Kenya’s HIV/AIDS program is supported by the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). PEPFAR, a five-year, $48 billion program, is led by the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, in conjunction with USAID, the Department of Health and Human Services (including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the Department of Defense (DOD), the U.S. Peace Corps, and the Department of State.
- (December 2010).
VMMC Soccer Videos from Kenya, VMMC.m4v. Retrieved 28 April 2011. Short video vignettes with a soccer theme that was field tested in communal video houses in Nyanza, Kenya during the 2010 World Cup Soccer broadcasts.
- Levels and Spread of HIV Seroprevalence and Associated Factors: Evidence from National Household Surveys (February 2009)
C-Change Develops Male Circumcision Toolkit for Kenya, C-Change. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
...[Male Circumcision] reduces risk for men...
- (1 October 2010).
Male Circumcision, C-Change. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
VMMC Communication Toolkit in Kenya
- Wang Al a; Duke W b; Schmid GP b (December 2009).
Bulletin of the World Health Organization: C-Channel Issue 15, C-Change. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
Print media reporting of male circumcision for preventing HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa
- Own Correspondent (12 September 2010).
US donates 5 000 male circumcision medical kits, The Standard. Retrieved 25 March 2011.