Stephen Moses

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Stephen Moses
Associates With:
Gilgal Society
Colleagues & Benefactors:
Daniel T. Halperin
Edgar J. Schoen
Robert C. Bailey
Bertran Auvert
Maria J. Wawer
Brian J. Morris
Avahan project
Funded by The World Bank

Stephen Moses, Professor, Departments of Medical Microbiology, Community Health Sciences and Medicine. Stephen Moses has been a circumcision proponent since at least 1994.[1] Moses (along with Robert C. Bailey) was responsible for one of the three major African circumcision trials (funded by NIAID and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research)[2] which are being used by the World Health Organization (under the guide of UNAIDS) to endorse circumcision as an HIV prevention method.[3]


According to Stephen's bio, his interest is in biological and behavioural risk factors for STI/HIV transmission.[4] Moses has been an advocate of circumcision since at least 1994.[1]

RCT in Kenya

Three trials were funded by the American National Institutes of Health.[5]Of the three RCTs being used by the WHO to endorse circumcision as HIV prevention, Stephen Moses and Robert C. Bailey headed the RCT that was carried out in Kenya.[6] Moses obviously brought his pre-existing bias in favor of male circumcision into the trial, so he did not start from a neutral position.

Moses' research on circumcision protection from HIV infection is now completely discredited. Boyle & Hill (2011) reviewed the three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and found disabling methodological and statistical errors in all three. Although a 60 percent relative reduction in HIV was claimed, the absolute reduction was a statistically insignificant 1.3 percent.[7] Garenne & Matthews (2019) report that circumcised men have as much HIV infection as intact men.[8]

Active projects


See also


  1. a b REFjournal Moses S, Plummer FA, Bradley JE, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nagelkerke NJ, Ronald AR. The association between lack of male circumcision and risk for HIV infection: a review of the epidemiological data. Sex Transm Dis. 1994; 21: 201-210.
  2. REFjournal Krieger JN, Bailey RC, Opeya J, et al. Adult male circumcision: results of a standardized procedure in Kisumu District, Kenya. BJU Int.. November 2005; 96(7): 1109–13. PMID. DOI.
  3. REFweb World Health Organization (27 March 2007). WHO and UNAIDS announce recommendations from expert consultation on male circumcision for HIV prevention. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  4. a b c d e f REFweb Moses, Stephen. Dr. Stephen Moses, University of Manitoba. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  5. REFweb (2016). HIV/AIDS, Doctors Opposing Circumcision (D.O.C.). Retrieved 23 March 2020.
    Quote: ...funding from the United States National Institutes of Health to conduct randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in Africa.
  6. REFjournal Bailey RC, Moses S, Parker CB, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 24 February 2007; 369(9562): 643–56. PMID. DOI. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  7. REFjournal Boyle GJ, Hill G. Sub-Saharan African randomised clinical trials into male circumcision and HIV transmission: Methodological, ethical and legal concerns PDF. Thompson Reuter. December 2011; 19(2): 316-34. PMID. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  8. REFjournal Garenne M, Matthews A. Voluntary medical male circumcision and HIV in Zambia: expectations and observations. J Biosoc Science. 1 October 2019; 14: 1-13. PMID. DOI. Retrieved 25 March 2020.