Medical literature about foreskin restoration

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This page collects and indexes medical literature about foreskin restoration. This page does not include material from ancient times.

Work in progress: The following information does not claim to be complete. More content will be added gradually.


Foreskin restoration may be done surgically or non-surgically by tissue expansion. Also, foreskin regeneration is under development.

Relatively little medical literature regarding foreskin restoration for circumcised men exists. The reasons for this are two-fold:

Surgical foreskin restoration

Surgical foreskin restoration was developed earlier than non-surgical foreskin restoration.


Non-surgical foreskin restoration

Non-surgical foreskin restoration is accomplished by stimulating mitosis in the residual tissue to cause tissue expansion.


Foreskin regeneration

Foreskin regeneration is a relatively new and experimental procedure with the application of the principles of tissue engineering to regeneration of missing foreskins, which Foregen is attempting to develop. The publications to date have been limited. The available articles report on the development of a procedure, not the actual performance of foreskin regeneration, which has not been reported as of June 2024.


See also

External links

The Cleveland Clinic (2023) has belatedly recognized the existence of both surgical and non-surgical foreskin restoration:

  • REFweb Anonymous (23 July 2023). Foreskin Restoration,, Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 21 June 2024.
    Quote: Restoring your foreskin is a personal decision, and there are many reasons why you may want to do it. Most people who wish to restore their foreskin want the appearance of an uncircumcised penis. It can also make you feel good to reclaim decisions about your body.


  1. REFweb Bollinger, Dan (2012). High Cost of Circumcision: $3.6 Billion Annually,, Academia. Retrieved 21 June 2024.
    Quote: As the saying goes, follow the money. Now you know why neither the American Academy of Pediatrics, American Medical Association, American Academy of Family Physicians, or the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists haven’t condemned this unnecessary surgery, and why their physician members are quick to recommend the procedure to expectant parents.
  2. REFjournal Özer M, Timmermans FW. ‘An insight into circumcised men seeking foreskin reconstruction: a prospective cohort study’. Int J Impot Res. November 2020; 32(6): 611-6. PMID. DOI. Retrieved 19 June 2024.