Alleged reasons for circumcision

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In the long history of genital mutilation aka foreskin amputation aka circumcision, there have been many false alleged reasons why this should be a medical procedure. Please note that some of the alleged medical reasons are rather pseudo-hygienical reasons which should never be solved by cutting off intact body parts.

Work in progress: The following information does not claim to be complete. More content will be added gradually.

Foreskin causes

In 1958, Christine F. McDonald said "the same reasons that apply for the circumcision of males are generally valid when considered for the female."[10]

In 1966, Masters and Johnson erroneous claim that there is no difference in sensitivity between penises with and without foreskin.

(Note: Their work helps propagate the medical dogma that circumcision has no effect on sexuality go practically unquestioned for nearly the next four decades.)[11]

Cure through FGM

Cure through MGM


See also


  1. a b c REFjournal Sayre LA. Spinal anaemia with partial paralysis and want of coordination, from irritation of the genital organs. Transactions of the American Medical Association. 1875; 26: 255-274.
  2. REFjournal Eggleston WG. Two cases of reflex paraplegia (one with aphasia) from tape-worm and phimosis. JAMA. 1886; 6(19): 511-5. DOI.
  3. a b REFjournal Guttmacher AF. Should the baby be circumcised?. Parents Magazine. September 1941; 16(9): 26,76-78.
  4. a b REFjournal Park R. The surgical treatment of epilepsy. American Medicine. 22 November 1902; 4(22): 807-9.
  5. a b REFjournal Eskridge BC. Why not circumcise the girl as well as the boy?. Texas State Journal of Medicine. May 1918; 14: 17-9.
  6. REFjournal Hutchinson J. On circumcision as preventive of masturbation. Archives of Surgery. January 1891; 2(7): 267-269.
  7. a b REFjournal Mark EG. Circumcision. The American Practitioner and News. 15 February 1901; 31(4): 122-6.
  8. a b c REFjournal Miller RL, Snyder DC. Immediate circumcision of the newborn male. AJOG. January 1953; 6(1): 1-11. PMID. DOI. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
  9. a b REFjournal Dawson BE. Circumcision in the Female: Its Necessity and How to Perform It. American Journal of Clinical Medicine. June 1915; 22(66): 520-3. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  10. REFjournal McDonald CF. Circumcision of the female. GP. September 1958; 18(3): 98-9. PMID. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
  11. REFbook Masters & Johnson (1966): Human Sexual Response. Boston, MA: Little Brown & Co.
  12. a b REFjournal Rathmann WG. Female Circumcision: Indications and a New Technique. General Practitioner. September 1959; 20(9): 115-20. PMID. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
  13. a b REFconference Stallings, Rebecca Y., with: Emilian Karugendo: Female circumcision and HIV infection in Tanzania: For better or for worse?, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (24 July 2005–27 July 2005) 3rd International AIDS Society Conference. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
  14. a b REFjournal Kane HH. Seminal emissions, abdominal neuralgia: circumcision: cure. The Southern Clinic (Richmond). October 1879; 2(1): 8-11.
  15. REFjournal Bell J. Nocturnal incontinence of urine cured by circumcision. Edinburgh Medical Journal. May 1873; 1(9): 1034.
  16. a b REFjournal Bare NH. Surgical treatment of epilepsy with report of case. Chinese Medical Journal (then: The China Medical Journal). November 1930; 44(11): 1109-13. DOI. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  17. a b c REFjournal Gentry WD. Nervous Derangements Produced by Sexual Irregularities in Boys. Medical Current. July 1890; 6(7): 268-74.
  18. REFjournal Heckford N. Circumcision as a remedial measure in certain cases of epilepsy and chorea. Clinical Lectures and Reports by the Medical and Surgical Staff of the London Hospital. 1865; 2: 58-64.
  19. REFjournal Sayre LA. Circumcision versus epilepsy, etc; Transcription of the New York Pathological Society meeting of June 8, 1870. Medical Record. 15 July 1870; 5(10): 231-234.
  20. REFjournal Landesberg M. On Affections of the Eye Caused by Masturbation. Medical Bulletin. April 1881; 3(4): 79-81.
  21. REFbook Lallemand CF ((1):1836; (2):1839; (3):1842): [Des Pertes Seminales Involontaires]. [Involuntary Seminal Losses] (French). Vol. 1-3. London: H. Dumont. Pp. (1):463-7; (2):70-162; (3):266-7, 280-9. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  22. a b REFjournal Rosenberry HL. Incontinence of the urine and faeces, cured by circumcision. Medical Record (New York). 11 August 1894; 46(6): 173.
  23. REFjournal Fink AJ. A possible explanation for heterosexual male infection with AIDS. New England Journal of Medicine. 30 October 1986; 31(18): 1167.
  24. REFjournal Schoen EJ. It's wise to circumcise: time to change policy. Pediatrics. June 2003; 111(6 Pt 1): 1490-1491.
  25. a b REFjournal Ravich A. Viral carcinogenesis in venereally susceptible organs. Cancer. June 1971; 27(6): 1493-6. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  26. a b REFjournal Hand EH. Circumcision and venereal disease. Archives of Dermatology and Syphilology. September 1949; 60(3) PMID. DOI. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
  27. REFjournal Ravich A. Prophylaxis of cancer of the prostate, penis, and cervix by circumcision. New York State Journal of Medicine. June 1951; 51(12): 1519-20. PMID. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  28. REFjournal Wynder EL, Cornfield J, Schroff PD, Doraiswami KR. A study of environmental factors of carcinoma of the cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol. October 1954; 68(4): 1016-47; discussion: 1048-52. PMID. DOI. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
  29. REFjournal Bailey RC, Moses S, Parker CB, et al. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 24 February 2007; 369(9562): 643–56. PMID. DOI. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  30. a b REFjournal Cockshut RW. Circumcision. British Medical Journal. 19 October 1935; 2(3902): 764.
  31. REFbook Dixon EH (1845): Ch. IX: Phimosis and Circumcision, in: A Treatise on Diseases of the Sexual Organs. New York: William Taylor. Pp. 158-65. Retrieved 30 October 2021.
  32. REFjournal Moses MJ. The Value of Circumcision as a Hygienic and Therapeutic Measure. NY Med J. November 1871; 14(4): 368-74.
  33. REFbook Kellogg JH (1888): Treatment for Self-Abuse and Its Effects, in: Plain Facts for Old and Young (archive URL). Project Gutenberg (ed.). Burlington, Iowa: F. Segner & Co. Retrieved 31 October 2021.
  34. a b REFbook Fishbein M (1969): Sex hygiene, in: Modern Home Medical Adviser. Garden City (ed.). New York: Doubleday & Co. Pp. 90+119. Retrieved 30 October 2021.
  35. REFjournal Fink AJ. Is hygiene enough? Circumcision as a possible strategy to prevent group B streptococcal disease. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. August 1988; 159(2): 534-535.
  36. REFjournal Wolbarst AL. Is circumcision a prophylactic against penis cancer?. Cancer. July 1926; 3(4): 301-310.
  37. a b REFjournal Hutchinson J. The advantages of circumcision. The Polyclinic. September 1900; 3(9): 129-131.
  38. REFjournal Ravich A. The relationship of circumcision to cancer of the prostate. Journal of Urology. September 1942; 48(3): 298-299.
  39. REFjournal Remondino PC. Negro rapes and their social problems. National Popular Review. January 1894; 4(1): 3-6.
  40. REFjournal Fink AJ. Circumcision and sand. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. November 1991; 84(11): 696.
  41. REFjournal Sayre LA. Partial paralysis from reflex irritation, caused by congenital phimosis and adherent prepuce. Transactions of the American Medical Association. 1870; 21: 205-11.
  42. REFjournal Hutchinson J. On the Influence of Circumcision in Preventing Syphilis. Medical Times and Gazette. 1855; 32(844): 542-543. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  43. REFjournal Wolbarst AL. Universal circumcision as a sanitary measure. Journal of the American Medical Association. 10 January 1914; 62(2): 92-97.
  44. REFjournal Wiswell TE. Decreased incidence of urinary tract infections in circumcised male infants. Pediatrics. May 1985; 75(5): 901-3.