Literature about foreskin restoration
One of the aspects of intactivism that are most ignored by the medical community is the existence of a large community of men restoring their foreskin through non-surgical methods. Foreskin restoration was first done by the Jewish people approximately 100 years before the Christian era,  and was the reason why the original Brit Milah was made more radical, turning it into brit periah.
Interest in foreskin restoration reappeared during World War II, when Jewish men were often identified by the absence of foreskin. Surgical methods were attempted. This interest traveled to Europe and the United States, giving place to new methods. In 1982, some men who didn't want to submit to surgery, rediscovered non-surgical restoration and created the BUFF method, which they shared freely. Since then, new methods have been developed through experimentation, and shared through internet in online forums.
The AAP and the CDC make no mention of foreskin restoration in their circumcision policies. The general attitude of the American medical community towards restorers is one of skepticism. Restoration is discounted as a placebo, and restorers are accused of being obsessed and psychologically unstable. A tireless advocate of circumcision and major critic of foreskin restoration is Brian J. Morris.
After being part of an interview for a magazine article, this editor found out that the same magazine had already published an article on the topic some years ago, fact that was probably ignored by the interviewer. While I mentioned to the interviewer how the AAP systematically ignores foreskin restorers in their policy statement, not realizing that restorers are the "unhappy customers" of this unnecessary procedure, this comment unfortunately was also cut from the printed interview. Perhaps it was considered too confrontational, or the interviewer did not realize the importance of this contrast.
When media outlets share articles about foreskin restoration on social media, the general comments also often include disbelief and disrespect. In spite of 35 years of freely sharing information on non-surgical foreskin restoration, most people think it's some kind of new fad.
This experience with the interview and subsequent observation of comments on social media inspired us to compile an extensive list of articles. Furthermore, since web pages are somewhat volatile and tend to disappear, we have stored each article in PDF format for archival purposes.
Books about foreskin restoration
- Bigelow J (1991): The Joy of Uncircumcising - Exploring Circumcision: History, Myths, Psychology, Restoration, Sexual Pleasure, and Human Rights. Hourglass Book Pub. ISBN 978-0934061223.
- Griffin GM (1991): Decircumcision: Circumcision Practices & Foreskin Restoration Methods. Added Dimensions Publishing. ISBN 978-1879967052.
- Dr. West C (2014): Foreskin Restoration 101: How to Decircumcise For a Better Sex Life. KDP. ISBN 978-1500127992.
Forums about foreskin restoration
Websites about foreskin restoration
Pages specific to foreskin restoration devices are not shown here, they will be listed on the Basics of foreskin restoration
- NORM - National Organization of Restoring Men
- Circumstitions - foreskin restoration, a growing movement
- CIRP Circumcision Information and Resource Pages
- What is foreskin restoration (Tally)
- Benefits part 2
- How to start
- Beginners' guide to foreskin restoration
- Doctors Opposing Circumcision - foreskin restoration
- Page with description of methods
- Manual methods of foreskin restoration
- History and methods of foreskin restoration
Medical journal articles about foreskin restoration
The publication of articles in medical journals about foreskin restoration has been slight. The ancient practice of epispasm was revived by laymen. It bears testimony to the harm, injury, and damage done by medical doctors who practice circumcision, so little has been printed in medical journals about foreskin restoration. Consequently, the typical medical doctor is entirely ignorant concerning foreskin restoration.
The following selection does not claim to be complete and is sorted by year of publication (new to old).
- Özer M, Timmermans FW.
An insight into circumcised men seeking foreskin reconstruction: a prospective cohort study. Int J Impot Res. November 2020; 32: 611-6. PMID. DOI. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
Although rare, these patients experience a heavy burden and will go to great lengths to reconstruct their foreskin, more often so without the involvement of healthcare professions.
- Timmermans FW, Mokken SE, Poor Toulabi SCZ, et al. A review on the history of and treatment options for foreskin reconstruction after circumcision . Int J Impot Res. 14 April 2021; PMID. DOI. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
Nonsurgical methods of reconstruction are rarely mentioned in literature. Nonetheless, nonsurgical methods, such as manual stretching and device-assisted tissue expansion, are commonplace among those who pursue foreskin reconstruction. Although the nonsurgical methods have yielded good results with minimal adverse effects, no proper medical research has been performed to quantify these outcomes.
- Hammond T, Carmack A. Long-term adverse outcomes from neonatal circumcision reported in a survey of 1,008 men: An overview of health and human rights implications. Int J Human Rights. 17 February 2017; 21(2): 189–218. DOI. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
- Collier R. Whole again: the practice of foreskin restoration. CMAJ. 13 December 2011; 183(18): 2092-3. PMID. PMC. DOI. Retrieved 5 June 2022.
- Hammond T. A preliminary poll of men circumcised in infancy or childhood. BJU Int. January 1999; 83 Suppl 1: 85-92. PMID. DOI. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
- Brandes SB, McAninch JW. Surgical methods of restoring the prepuce: a critical review. BJU Int. 1999; 83 Suppl 1: 109-13. PMID. DOI. Retrieved 5 June 2022.
- Schultheiss D, Truss MC, Stief CG, Jonas CG. Uncircumcision: a historical review of preputial restoration. Plast Reconstr Surg. June 1998; 101(7): 1990-8. PMID. DOI. Retrieved 5 June 2022.
- Pertot S. Sensitivity is the rising issue on circumcision. Australian Doctor. 25 November 1994; Retrieved 5 June 2022.
- Anonymous. The joy of uncircumcising. BMJ. 10 September 1994; 309: 676-7. Retrieved 5 June 2022.
When you look up circumcision in modern surgical textbooks you find the anatomy of the foreskin well described but no mention of its function. You find the indications for circumcision and how to carry it out, but no mention of the consequences.
- Money, John. Sexology, body image, foreskin restoration, and bisexual status. J Sex Res. February 1991; 28(1): 145-56. Retrieved 5 June 2022.
- Goodwin WE. Uncircumcision: a technique for plastic reconstruction of a prepuce after circumcision. J Urol. November 1990; 144(5): 1203-5. PMID. DOI. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
- Greer DM, Mohl PC, Sheley KA. A technique for foreskin reconstruction and some preliminary results. J Sex Res. November 1982; 18(4): 324-30. Retrieved 5 June 2022.
- Mohl PC, Adams R, Greer DM, Sheley KA. Prepuce restoration seekers: psychiatric aspects (archive URL). Arch Sex Behav. August 1981; 10(4): 383-93. PMID. DOI. Retrieved 5 June 2022.
- Levin S. Letter: Circumcision and uncircumcision. South African Medical Journal. 5 June 1976; 50(24): 913. PMID. Retrieved 5 June 2022.
- Schneider T. Circumcision and 'uncircumcision'. S Afr Med J. 27 March 1976; 50(14): 556-8. PMID. Retrieved 5 June 2022.
- Lynch ML, Pryor JP. Uncircumcision: a one-stage procedure. Br J Urol. August 1973; 72(7): 257-8. PMID. DOI. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
- Tushmot L. Uncircumcision. Medical Times. June 1965; 93(6): 588-93. PMID. Retrieved 5 June 2022.
- Penn J. Penile reform. Br J Plast Surg. July 1963; 16: 287-8. PMID. DOI. Retrieved 5 June 2022.
The result was satisfactory physically and the patient was completely rehabilitated psychologically.
Articles in popular press about foreskin restoration
The following selection does not claim to be complete and is sorted by year of publication (new to old).
- (18 October 2016).
Millennial Men Rush to Restore Their Foreskins, ‘Feel Whole Again’, YouTube, Heat Street. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
- Scott A (18 April 2016).
Circumcised men figured out how to regrow foreskin to increase sexual pleasure, Rooster. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
Another offered, “I cannot believe the difference in my orgasms, especially when I experience a full body orgasm.”
- Morson J (23 February 2016).
The Men Who Want Their Foreskin Back, The Daily Beast. Retrieved 8 June 2022. Archived PDF: File:The Men Who Want Their Foreskin Back - The Daily Beast.pdf
- Elder, Adam (1 February 2016)."I Grew Back My Foreskin, and You Can Too", Mel Magazine. Retrieved 8 June 2022. Archive PDF: File:I Grew Back My Foreskin, and You Can Too — MEL Magazine — Medium.pdf
- Swanson, Jess (6 October 2015)."A Look at the Wacky, Wrinkly World of Foreskin Restoration", The Village Voice. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
“Sex does not hurt anymore,” Ted’s wife shouts over him into the receiver. “No more sandpaper!”
- Swanson, Jess (6 October 2015)."Meet the Circumcised Men in Miami Trying to Regrow Their Foreskins", Miami New Times. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
"Most of the world is horrified to find out that this is done by anybody," Goldman adds. "There is even a movement among Jews in various countries including here and in Israel that is raising awareness about not circumcising their sons."
- Holslin, Peter (1 July 2015)."It Takes a Lot of Dick-Tugging to Get Your Foreskin Back", Vice. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
Most of the world is horrified to find out that this is done by anybody,Goldman adds.
There is even a movement among Jews in various countries, including here and in Israel, that is raising awareness about not circumcising their sons.
- Kutner, Jenny (31 January 2015)."Parents love genital cutting more than they love their own children", Salon. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
What’s strange to me is if you go to a parent of a new child, and that new child has to go in for a surgery as they believe, you would think proving to them that that child doesn’t need the surgery would be a huge relief to the parent. But parents aren’t relieved. They’re very, very emotionally detached to the idea of genital cutting. I’ve said it many times, and I’ve yet to really be proven wrong, parents love the act of genital cutting more than they love their own children.File:Salon 2015.pdf
- The NetDoctor Medical Team (3 July 2014).
I'm circumcised, can my foreskin be restored?, Net Doctor. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
I was circumcised at a very early age and this has left my penis very 'insensitive'. I have therefore found sexual intercourse not perhaps as pleasurable as it could be. I have immense difficulty getting enough stimulation to ejaculate during intercourse.File:Fs42.pdf
- Leslie SW (2014).
Erectile Dysfunction(archive URL), All Experts. Retrieved 8 June 2022. (Another case of a physician discouraging a person asking for information on restoration). File:Fs43.pdf
- Frank (2014)."My foreskin restoration" (PDF) (archive URL), ZB. Retrieved 9 June 2022. (Account of surgical restoration with explicit narrative - on a fetish/fiction website) File:Fs46.pdf
- (2014)."Transforming your penis", Go Naked Magazine. Retrieved 9 June 2022. File:fs4501.jpg File:fs4502.jpg
- Piotrowski, Daniel (9 October 2013)."Meet the circumcised men who want to restore their foreskins", news.com.au. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
But many men said they have experienced emotional difficulties because of their parents' decision to have them circumcised.File:Fs39.pdf
- Murdock, Sebastian (8 October 2013)."Men missing foreskin fume on forums", Huffington Post. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
Many users express animosity towards their parents for the removal of their extra skin.File:Fs38.pdf
- Wilson J (7 October 2013).
The men who want their foreskins back(archive URL), The Kernel. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
The simplest way of imparting tension upon one's member is to pull on it manually. Many methods for manual tugging exist and members use foreskin-restoration.net to share their experiences.File:Fs37.pdf
- Hussy-Whyte, Donna (8 July 2013)."Is circumcision reversal possible?", Jamaican Observer. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
Many boys who are circumcised become men who regret the decision.File:Fs41.pdf
- Winter Tashlin (7 July 2013).
Foreskin Restoration: Becoming Whole Again, Billarico Project. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
The fundamental principle behind foreskin restoration is remarkably simple: when skin is put under tension, it grows through the process of mitosis.File:Fs47.pdf
- (2013). Foreskin restoration growing in popularity in Australia
Foreskin restoration growing in popularity in Australia, Aussie Penis. Retrieved 8 June 2022. File:Fs40.pdf
- Morse, Stephen Robert (24 December 2012)."In defense of the foreskin", Salon. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
All I knew was that this is clearly not a decision I should be making for another human being.File:Salon 2012.pdf
- Morse, Stephen Robert (19 December 2012).Fighting for foreskin"Fighting for foreskin", Narratively. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
The contemporary restoration activists, who call themselves intactivists, stand by this ancient belief that the glans should not be exposed, and therefore circumcision is nothing less than mutilation.File:Fs44.pdf
- Moir, Elwyn (2 October 2012)."I was circumcised and I want my foreskin back", The Punch. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
We should protect our men from feelings of hurt and violation as we do our women.File:Fs34.pdf
- Austin, Chris (2012)."Open letter to the American Academy of Pediatrics", Science 2.0. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
When I was about four years old, I liked to walk along the road with my hand down the front of my trousers, feeling my foreskin, because it felt nice. This was a delicious, soft, blissful feeling. Then my mother had my foreskin cut off, to stop me from feeling it.File:Fs36.pdf
- Karlin-Neumann, Patricia (1 March 2011)."Mourning a Foreskin", Tikkun. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
Through her fiction, Lisa Braver Moss has found a new way to insinuate the circumcision controversy into the Jewish conversation.(About Lisa Braver Moss' novel, "The Measure of His Grief", which deals with the topic of foreskin restoration). File:Fs32.pdf
- Novak L (2011).
The foreskin renaissance, The Good Men Project. Retrieved 7 June 2022.
Foreskin restoration has changed my life, like I never imagined was possible,” he says. “At 55, I’m enjoying sex like I’m in my 20s. Having my foreskin has made me feel more confident and comfortable in my skin and bodyFile:Fs30.pdf
- Forgan-Smith G (2011).
The healthy bear on foreskin restoration and how to reverse circumcision, The Healthy Bear. Retrieved 7 June 2022.
Currently Australian circumcision rates have dramatically dropped with only 10-20% of men being circumcised.File:Fs31.pdf
- Cooper, Wilbert L. (2011)."Matthew Hess wants to save your baby's foreskin" (PDF), Vice. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
If a man wants to undergo circumcision by choice, we don’t oppose that. We oppose forced circumcision of minors. It’s common sense not to remove a healthy body part from someone who can’t consent. It’s against the law to cut off any part of a girl’s genitals or even draw one drop of blood. There is a double standard when it comes to boys’ penises.File:Fs33.pdf
- Mac, James (28 December 2010)."Getting Back What was Lost: A Journey to Foreskin Restoration". Retrieved 7 June 2022. File:Fs29.pdf
- Anonymous (21 May 2008)."Second skin now an option", Star Observer. Retrieved 7 June 2022.
There are myriad ways of restoring the foreskin, so Dr Ball has produced a 40-minute video demonstration called Restoration in Focus showing the basic methods both DIY and commercial.File:Fs28.pdf
- Ludwig, Elisa (2008)."Gimme some skin" (PDF), Details Magazine. Retrieved 7 June 2023. File:Fs27.pdf
- Lee-St. John, Jeninne (2 November 2007)."The Great Uncircumcision Debate", Time. Retrieved 7 June 2022.
"Foreskin feels really good." So good, in fact, that many restorers have also become "intactivists" who say involuntary circumcision of newborn males is cosmetic surgery and a civil rights violation.File:Fs24.pdf
- Peres, Judy (9 January 2007)."Circumcision circumspection", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 7 June 2022. File:Fs26.pdf
- Malisow, Craig (2007)."The Fantastic Foreskin", Houston Press.
2022-06-07(PDF larger than we can upload at the time)
- Cusack, Veronica (August 2006)."Boys and the Hood" (archive URL), Toronto Life. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
Though no one is keeping official statistics, the burgeoning Web presence of forums and chat groups, plus advocacy and information sites devoted to restoration, suggests that there are tens of thousands of men now at some stage of the procedure.File:Fs2301.pdf File:Fs2302.pdf File:Fs2303.pdf File:Fs2304.pdf File:Fs2305.pdf
- Johnson, Richard (28 October 2005)."Sore point", The Guardian. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
When the foreskin is removed, it leaves the glans exposed and that can be difficult — removing a protective layer and sometimes creating soreness.File:Fs22.pdf
- Philipkoski, Kristen (19 December 2004)."New foreskin is really a stretch", Wired. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
Men who have been circumcised, who account for about 63 percent of the U.S. male population (one of the highest rates in the world), have been stripped of some significant sensory ability, say some groups that oppose circumcision.File:Fs2101.pdf File:Fs2102.pdf
- Bonné, Jon (24 November 2003)."These men want their foreskins back", NBC News. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
You cannot cut off normal, healthy sexually functioning tissue without cutting off normal, healthy sexual functioning,File:Fs20.pdf
- Newman, Barry (28 December 2000)."'intactivists' seek to undo a long practiced ritual", Wall Street J. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
You can restore if you want, but you can also educate others not to circumcise their boys.File:Fs19.pdf
- Snowbeck, Christopher (25 April 2000)."Local men restoring their foreskins", Post Gazette. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
The idea is to apply tension -- but, please, not too much tension -- to the shaft skin to stretch it and promote new skin growth.File:Fs17.pdf
- Spicuzza, Mary (27 January 2000)."Willy Nilly. Foreskin restoration advocates hope for healing as they fight a long and sensitive battle against circumcision", Metroactive. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
It became real clear that this wasn't a good medical procedure,File:Fs18.pdf
- Lane, Kim (17 December 1999).[Foreskin and several years from now"Foreskin and several years from now", Salon. Retrieved 6 June 2022. File:Salon 1999.pdf
- Richards, Scott (July 1999)."Lost and found" (PDF) (archive URL), Guide Magazine. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
The skin on the penis is no different, so if you force it to stretch, it will happily obligeFile:Fs14.pdf
- Cruz R (1999).
Uncircumcised: Foreskin Restoration(archive URL), Fathering Magazine. Retrieved 6 June 2022. Archived PDFs: File:Fs1302.pdf File:Fs1303.pdf File:Fs1304.pdf File:Fs1305.pdf File:Fs1306.pdf
- Reed HM (1998).
Reed center in Miami used to offer surgical restoration 2005-2006(archive URL), Reed Centre. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
Foreskin restoration has been described even before Celsus, the first great Roman physician (25 B.C. to A.D. 50), wrote "De Medicin."File:Fs22a.pdf
- Toppo, Greg (29 November 1996).Circumcision Reversal Gains in Popularity"Circumcision Reversal Gains in Popularity", The New Mexican. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
The second reason men give is that restoration of the skin over the head of the penis restores a large amount of sensation, making for greater sexual pleasure.File:Fs10.pdf
- LaMorte, Chris (1996)."Boys and their hoods" (archive URL). Retrieved 6 June 2022.
It's so sensitive. I always thought I was enjoying sex as much as anyone could enjoy sex, but of course, I had nothing to compare it to.File:Fs11.pdf
- Felshman, Jeffrey (8 March 1995)."The Foreskin Flap", Chicago Reader. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
There are two kinds of men in the world, and the majority have foreskins. But not here in the U.S.File:Fs09.pdf
- Bigelow, Jim (July 1994)."Uncircumcising Undoing the Effects of an Ancient Practice in a Modern World", Mothering. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
The tragedy is that they should ever have needed to do such a thing for themselves, since, with rare exceptions, each one was born with a perfectly good foreskin on his penis and since, also with rare exception, each one was deprived of his basic human right to participate in the amputation decision.File:Fs06.pdf
- Hicks, Cherrill (3 August 1993)."Health: They took my foreskin, and I want it back: Some men feel their circumcision at birth was an assault. Now they can be 'uncircumcised' without surgery, writes Cherrill Hicks" (PDF) (archive URL), The Independent. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
The glans has changed in texture from toughened skin to become more like mucous tissue,
- BUFF (1987).
Non-Surgical Foreskin Restoration. The stretching procedure(archive URL). Retrieved 6 June 2022.
- Basics of foreskin restoration
- Foreskin restoration
- Surgical foreskin restoration
- Category:Film about foreskin restoration
- Hall RG. Epispasm: circumcision in reverse. Bible Review. August 1992; : 52-7. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
- Schultheiss D, Truss MC, Stief CG, Jonas U. Uncircumcision: A Historical Review of Preputial Restoration. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998; 101(7): 1990-8. PMID. DOI. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
- Tushmet L. Uncircumcision. Medical Times. June 1965; 93(6): 588-93. PMID. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
- Bigelow J. Uncircumcising: undoing the effects of an ancient practice in a modern world. Mothering. July 1994; : 59-61. Retrieved 2 January 2010.