Ninth International Symposium

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The Ninth International Symposium on Circumcision, Genital Integrity, and Human Rights convened in Johnson Hall at the University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA on August 24-26, 2006.


  • Mostafa K. Al-Madawi is a retired judge. Benghazi, Libya.
  • Zachary Androus, BA[a 1], M.A.[a 2], and Ph.D.[a 3] Candidate in Race, Gender, and Social Justice, American University, teaches anthropology at the Istituto Lorenzo de' Medici, Florence, Italy.
  • Suzanne Arms is an author, photojournalist, filmmaker, and founder and director of Birth the Future. Bayfield, CO.
  • Peter Ball, M.A.[a 2], MB, B.Chir., retired family practitioner, is Vice Chairman, NORM-UK, and producer and director, non-surgical foreskin restoration video. Turnbridge Wells, Kent, UK.
  • David Chamberlain, Ph.D.[a 3], is a psychologist, pioneer in prenatal and birth psychology, and author. Nevada City, CA, USA.
  • Georganne Chapin, MS, J.D.[a 4], is President and CEO of Hudson Health Plan and adjunct faculty member, Pace University School of Law. Terrytown, NY, USA.
  • John Dalton, a biochemist with an M.S.[a 5] in Radiation Biophysics, is the archivist and researcher for NORM-UK. Stone, Staffordshire, UK.
  • Oloaye Olusoji Emmanuel, founder, Media for Ethnic Equality (MEE), inspiring youths and campaigning for peace in the world through the media. Ikeja Lagos, Nigeria.
  • Marie Fox, LL.B, Ph.D.[a 3], is Professor of Law, School of Law, Keele University and an author. Staffordshire, UK.
  • Noel Gazzano, medical anthropologist, received her Ph.D.[a 3] from the University of Firenze. Florence, Italy.
  • John Geisheker, J.D.[a 4], LLM, is General Counsel and Executive Director, Doctors Opposing Circumcision (D.O.C.). Seattle, WA, USA.
  • Leonard B. Glick, M.D.[a 6], Ph.D.[a 3], Professor of Anthropology, Hampshire College, Amherst, M.A.[a 2] (retired), is the author of Marked in Your Flesh: Circumcision from Ancient Judea to Modern America. New Salem, MA, USA.
  • Jess Grant is a singer and writer of songs to provoke and amuse, fusing lyrical intensity with diverse pop styles and working-class ethics. Seattle, WA, USA.
  • Pia Grassivaro Gallo, Ph.D.[a 3], Associate Professor of Anthropology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Padua, organized Padua’s Working Group on FGM. Padua, Italy.
  • Matthew Hess, founder and President of San Diego-based, is seeking to pass US laws that would protect boys from non-therapeutic circumcision. San Diego, CA, USA.
  • George Hill is the Vice-President for Bioethics and Medical Science, Doctors Opposing Circumcision (D.O.C.). Seattle, WA, USA.
  • Frederick Mansfield Hodges, Ph.D.[a 3] (Oxon), medical historian, author, and co-author of What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Circumcision. Berkeley, CA, USA.
  • Yngve Hofvander, M.D.[a 6], is a pediatrician and Professor, International Child Health, Uppsala University. Uppsala, Sweden.
  • Primus Lake, is a Professor, Nusa Cendana University. Kupang, West Timor, Indonesia.
  • Romeo B. Lee, is Associate Professor, Behavioural Sciences, De La Salle University. Manila, Philippines.
  • Gloria Lemay is a writer, midwifery educator, and childbirth activist. Vancouver, BC, Canada.
  • David J. Llewellyn, BA[a 1], J.D.[a 4], a practicing attorney, representing plaintiffs in wrongful circumcision and other genital injury cases. Atlanta, GA, USA.
  • Linda Massie, BSc, PG/Dip, is founder and Director, NOCIRC of Northern Ireland. Glengormley, County Antrim, Northern Ireland.
  • Ken McGrath, VRD, M.S.[a 5] (Hons), LIBiol, is Senior Lecturer in Pathology, Faculty of Health, Auckland University of Technology. Auckland, NZ.
  • Jody McLaughlin is editor of the Compleat Mother magazine and Director, NOCIRC of ND. Minot, ND, USA.
  • Marilyn Milos, RN[a 7], is Director, National Organization of Circumcision Information Resource Centers (NOCIRC) and Coordinator, International Symposia on Genital Integrity. San Anselmo, CA, USA.
  • Stephanie Mines, Ph.D.[a 3], is a psychologist and the author of We Are All in Shock: How Overwhelming Experience Shatters You and What You Can do About It (New Page Books, 2003). Boulder, CO, USA.
  • Debora Moro is a graduate in Psychology, Working Group on FGM, University of Padua. Padua, Italy.
  • Miriam Pollack, an educator, has been advocating for genital integrity for Jewish as well as non-Jewish baby boys for the past 15 years. Boulder, CO, USA.
  • Patricia Robinett is a Clinical Hypnotherapist and the author of The Big Ugly and The Rape of Innocence. Eugene, OR, USA.
  • Steve Scott, Educational Outreach Coordinator of the National Organization of Circumcision Information Resource Centers, is the Director, NOCIRC of Utah. Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
  • David Smith is the general manager of NORM-UK and editor of NORM NEWS. Stone, Staffordshire, UK.
  • James L. Snyder, M.D.[a 6], F.A.C.S.[a 8], is a Diplomate, American Board of Urology, Fellow, American College of Surgeons and Past President, Virginia Urological Society. Clifton Forge, VA, USA.
  • Morris L. Sorrells, M.D.[a 6], is a retired pediatrician, consultant, and researcher. Gig Harbor, WA, USA.
  • J. Steven Svoboda, J.D.[a 4], founder and Director, Attorneys for the Rights of the Child (ARC), Berkeley, CA, USA.
  • Michael Thomson, LL.B, Ph.D.[a 3], is Professor of Law and Head of School, School of Law, Keele University and an author. Staffordshire, UK.
  • Franco Viviani, Ph.D.[a 3], is Professor of Functional Anthropology, University of Udine, Professor of Psychobiology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Padua, Italy.
  • Rebecca Wald, BA[a 1], J.D.[a 4], has worked as an attorney, a newspaper reporter, covering legal issues, and a newspaper and book editor. Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA.
  • John Warren, M.A.[a 2], MB, Bchirc, DCH, FRCP, is a retired physician and founder of NORM-UK. Harlow, Essex, UK.
  • Hugh Young, a journalist and radio producer, created and maintains a human rights website,, treating intactness rather than circumcision as normal. Pukerua Bay, New Zealand.



Thursday, 24 August

  • Welcome and Opening Remarks
Marilyn Milos, John Geisheker, and Peter Ball
David Chamberlain
  • Determining the Best Interest of the Child: A comparative approach to professional medical guidance for relating male circumcision
Marie Fox and Michael Thomson
Zachary Androus
  • Circumcision in Perspective
Jody McLaughlin
  • Circumcision Mythologies in Conflict with Logic, Reason, and Common Sense
Steve Scott
  • Consequences of Female Genital Mutilation on Global Health and Sexuality
Olaoye Olusoji Emmanuel
Noel Gazzano
Debora Moro
Franco Viviani
  • Ten Years of Merka’s Alternative Rite in Somalia (1996-2005): From “Sunna Gudnin” to “Gudnin Usub”
Franco Viviani
  • Muslims and Circumcision
Mostafa K. Al-Madawi
  • Changing People’s Minds about Circumcision
Patricia Robinett

Friday, 25 August

  • “Toxic Irritation of the Nervous System” Abraham Wolbarst and the Industrial Implementation of Eugenic Circumcision
Frederick Hodges
  • Excuses for Circumcision: Some Byways of Penile Anatomy
Ken McGrath
  • The Perils of Circumcision
James L. Snyder
George Hill
John Dalton
Morris L. Sorrells
Zachary Androus
  • Image: Are We Right or Wrong?
David Smith
Leonard Glick
Romeo B. Lee
  • Traditional Male Circumcision in West Timor, Indonesia: Practices, Myths, and their Impact on the Spread of HIV/AIDS and Gender Relations
Primus Lake
  • Report from NOCIRC of Ireland
Linda Massie
John Warren
Yngve Hofvander
  • Foreskins for Keeps: A Midwife’s Project to End Circumcision
Gloria Lemay
  • Circumcision in the Mass Media
Hugh Young

Saturday, 26 August

Georganne Chapin
J. Steven Svoboda
David J. Llewellyn
  • Switching Gears in Washington State: From Individual Lawsuits to Writ of Mandamus
John Geisheker
Matthew Hess
  • Ending Non-religious Circumcision: Supply vs Demand
A Moderated Discussion
Miriam Pollack
Rebecca Wald
  • Resolving Circumcision Trauma: Neurological Repatterning and Healing Action
Stephanie Mines
  • Ending Circumcision for Children: A Total Paradigm Shift
Suzanne Arms
Marilyn Milos and Suzanne Arms
  • No Host Banquet Dinner and Premier Performance
Composer Ron Romanovsky and Betty Katz Sperlich, co-founder, Nurses for the Rights of the Child, present IT’S A BOY! (a circus opera). The performance includes five vocalists and two accompanists.

The proceedings are published in Circumcision and Human Rights, edited by George C. Denniston, Frederick Mansfield Hodges, and Marilyn Fayre Milos, Springer, 2009.


The Symposium was sponsored by the National Organization of Circumcision Information Resource Centers and Doctors Opposing Circumcision (D.O.C.).

See also

External links


  1. a b c REFweb Bachelor of Arts, Wikipedia. Retrieved 13 October 2021. (BA or AB; from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus.)
  2. a b c d REFweb Master of Arts, Wikipedia. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  3. a b c d e f g h i j REFweb Doctor of Philosophy, Wikipedia. Retrieved 16 June 2021. (Also abbreviated as D.Phil.)
  4. a b c d e REFweb Juris Doctor, Wikipedia. Retrieved 13 October 2021. (Also known as Doctor of Law or Doctor of Jurisprudence.)
  5. a b REFweb Master of Science, Wikipedia. Retrieved 13 October 2021. (Latin: magisterii scientiae; also abbreviated MS, MSc, M.Sc., SM, S.M., ScM or Sc.M.)
  6. a b c d REFweb Doctor of Medicine, Wikipedia. Retrieved 14 June 2021. In the United Kingdom, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries, the abbreviation MD is common.
  7. REFweb Registered nurse, Wikipedia. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  8. REFweb Fellow of the American College of Surgeons, Wikipedia. Retrieved 10 January 2021.