Eighth International Symposium

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The Eighth International Symposium on Circumcision and Human Rights convened at the University of Padua, Padua, Veneto, Italy on September 2-4, 2004.


  • Suzanne Arms, author, photojournalist, filmmaker, founding member of the Coalition to Improve Maternity Services (CIMS) and the Alliance for Transforming the Lives of Children (aTLC), and founder and director, Birthing the Future. Bayfield, CO, USA.
  • Zenas Baer, J.D.[a 1], practices law in Federal and State Courts in northern Minnesota, concentrating on federal civil rights litigation. Hawley, MN, USA.
  • Jeannine Parvati Baker, MS, director, NOCIRC of Utah – Joseph, co-founder, Six Directions, and author. Joseph, UT, USA.
  • Peter J. Ball, M.A.[a 2], MB, B Chir, retired family practitioner, member, NORM-UK, and producer and director, non-surgical foreskin restoration video. Turnbridge Wells, Kent, UK.
  • Charles A. Bonner, J.D.[a 1], civil rights, personal injury, and medical malpractice attorney. Sausalito, CA, USA.
  • Lucrezia Catania, gynecologist, Research Centre for Preventing and Curing Female Genital Mutilation and its Complications. Department of Gynaecology and Obstretrics, University of Florence, Italy.
  • Georganne Chapin, J.D.[a 1], President and Chief Executive Officer, Hudson Health Plan. Tarrytown, NY, USA.
  • Anna Laura Comunian, Professor, Theories and Techniques of Personality Testing and Group Dynamic Theory and Techniques, Department of Psychology, University of Padua; Fellow, American Psychology Association (Division 52); Coordinator of the Laboratory of International and Cross-Cultural Psychology for the personality test adaptation. Padua, Italy.
  • Amber Craig, MS, director, NOCIRC of North Carolina and coordinator, Medicaid Project. Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
  • George C. Denniston, M.D.[a 3], M.P.H.[a 4], founder and director, Doctors Opposing Circumcision (D.O.C.) and author. Norland, WA, USA.
  • Lara Franco, graduated in Psychology, Working Group on FGM, University of Padua. Padua, Italy.
  • Joy Frempong, student in musical composition at the Professional Jazz School in Bern, performs jazz and experimental music and teaches contemporary singing in Zurich. Treviso, Italy.
  • Noel Gazzano, Ph.D.[a 5] program, Department of Anthropology. Florence, Italy.
  • John V. Geisheker, J.D.[a 1], LL.M.[a 6], Attorney at Law, General Counsel, Doctors Opposing Circumcision, Seattle, WA, USA
  • Leonard B. Glick, M.D.[a 3] (University of Maryland), Ph.D.[a 5] (University of Pennsylvania), Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, Hampshire College, Amherst, MA, and author. New Salem, MA, USA.
  • Nansi Glick, MA, is an academic bookseller in New Salem, MA, USA.
  • Pia Grassivaro Gallo, Ph.D.[a 5], Associate Professor of Anthropology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Padua, teaches Applied Biology, Human Genetics, and Genetic Anthropology. Since 1988, she has organized Padua’s Working Group on FGM, dealing with Africans and African immigrants in Italy. Padua, Italy.
  • R. Wayne Griffiths, MS, MEd, sociologist and educator, co-founder of NORM (National Organization of Restoring Men. Concord, CA, USA.
  • Frederick Mansfield Hodges, D Phil (Oxon), medical historian and author. Berkeley, CA, USA.
  • Yngve Hofvander, M.D.[a 3], pediatrician, Professor, International Child Health, Uppsala University, Sweden, consultant to the Swedish International Development Authority, World Health Organization, and UNICEF. Uppsala, Sweden
  • Abdulcadir Omar Hussen, gynecologist, Research Centre for Preventing and Curing Female Genital Mutilation and its Complications. Department of Gynaecology and Obstretrics, University of Florence. Florence, Italy.
  • Anna Iordanidou, graduated in Psychology, Working Group on FGM, University of Padua, Department of Equal Opportunities of the Ministry of Interior (KETHI). Athens, Greece.
  • Baba Galleh Jallow, BA[a 7], founding editor and CEO of The Independent newspaper in The Republic of the Gambia, Associate for the Africa Program of the Peace Building Unit of the American Friends Service Committee in Philadelphia, graduate student at Rutgers University. Philadelphia, PA, USA.
  • Stella Lineri, graduated in Psychology, Working Group on FGM, University of Padua. Padua, Italy.
  • David J. Llewellyn, BA[a 7], J.D.[a 1], practicing attorney at law representing plaintiffs in wrongful circumcision and other genital injury cases. Atlanta, GA, USA.
  • Linda Massie, BSc, PG/Dip, founder and director, NOCIRC of Northern Ireland. Glengormley, County Antrim, Northern Ireland
  • Marilyn Fayre Milos, RN[a 8], director, National Organization of Circumcision Information Resource Centers (NOCIRC), Coordinator, International Symposia on Genital Integrity. San Anselmo, CA, USA.
  • Elizabeth Noble, PT, founder of the Women’s Health Section of the American Physical Therapy Association who always discusses circumcision in the seminars she gives worldwide. Harwich, MA, USA.
  • Michel Odent, M.D.[a 3], founder and director, Primal Health Research Centre, author, London, UK
  • Claudia Piccolantonio, student in medicine at Goethe University Frankfurt and of psychology at the University of Padua is now working with Terre de Femmes. Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
  • Sara Rashad, MFA in film production, University of Southern California. Documentary filmmaker. Egypt and Santa Monica, CA, USA.
  • Patricia Robinett, Clinical Hypnotherapist. Eugene, OR, USA.
  • Mariagrazia Scalise, Transcultural Psychiatric Group, “Santa Maria della Pieta.” Rome, Italy.
  • Petra Schnuell, student in Ethnologie, Sociology, Journalism, and Communication Studies at Georg August University of Göttingen, since 1996 committed to working with TERRE DES FEMMES. Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
  • Steve Scott, Education Outreach Coordinator of the National Organization of Circumcision Information Resource Centers, director, NOCIRC of Utah. Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
  • Leo Sorger, M.D.[a 3], retired OB-GYN refused to do circumcisions and promotes natural childbirth and breastfeeding. Harwich, MA, USA.
  • J. Steven Svoboda, J.D.[a 1], founder and director, Attorneys for the Rights of the Child (ARC), Berkeley, CA, USA.
  • Eleonora Tita, student in Psychology, Working Group on FGM, University of Padua. Padua, Italy.
  • Franco Viviani, Professor of Anthropology, Department of Natural Sciences, Professor of Psychobiology, Faculty of Psychology, Working Group on FGM, University of Padua. Padua, Italy
  • George L. Williams, MBChB[a 9], FRACP[a 10], consultant pediatrician and perinatologist, founder, NOCIRC of Australia, author. Sydney, Australia.
  • Hugh Young, BSc, graduated in Zoology, Canterbury University, and has worked as a journalist and radio producer. Pukerua Bay, New Zealand.



Thursday, 2 September

  • Welcome and Opening Remarks
Pia Grassivaro Gallo, Franco Viviani, Marilyn Milos
  • Honoring the Diversity and Wisdom of the World’s Cultures While Protecting the Rights of All Children Everywhere
Suzanne Arms
  • The Evolutionary Advantages of Neonatal Rituals
Michel Odent
Hugh Young
Eleonora Tita and Pia Grassivaro Gallo; presented by Eleonora Tita
  • History of Male Circumcision in Europe
Frederick M. Hodges
  • Neuroscience, the Emotional Brain, and Male Genital Mutilation
George L. Williams
  • The Neuro-Physiological Loss Consequent to Circumcision
Steve Scott
  • FGM, Women’s Identity, and the Sense of the Body
Noel Gazzano
  • Foreskin Sensation: A Subjective Review of 500 Men
Peter J. Ball
Jim Bigelow and R. Wayne Griffiths; presented by R. Wayne Griffiths
Stella Lineri, Chiara Rahue, and Pia Grassivaro Gallo; presented by Stella Lineri
  • Emigration and Tradition
Mariagrazia Scalise and Giovanni Hassan; presented by Mariagrazia Scalise
  • Accounts of the Labia Minora Elongation Rite by Baganda Girls (ages 12-16)
Anna Laura Comunian, Elisabetta Villa, Federica Bicchielli, and Pia Grassivaro Gallo; presented by Laura Comunian
Franco Viviani, Elisabetta Villa, and Pia Grassivaro Gallo; presented by Franco Viviani
Lara Franco, Lisa Rivaroli, Elena DiMaro, Franco Viviani, and Pia Grassivaro Gallo; presented by Lara Franco
Saulo Sirigatti, Lucrezia Catania, Sara Simone, Silvia Casale, and Abdulcadir Omar Hussen; presented by Lucrezia Catania
Mariagrazia Scalise and Antonino Jaria; presented by Mariagrazia Scalise
  • An Alternative Symbolic and Non-invasive Ritual to FGM
Abdulcadir Omar Hussen, and Lucrezia Catania; presented by Abdulcadir Omar Hussen

Friday, 3 September

  • Because You Are A Girl
Joy Frempong
Petra Schnuell, Gritt Richter, and Claudia Piccolantonio; presented by Petra Schnuell and Claudia Piccolantonio
  • FGM in African Immigrants in Greece
Anna Iordanidou and Pia Grassivaro Gallo; presented by Anna Iordanidou
  • Impressions of Genital Cutting in Turkey, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso and South Africa
Elizabeth Nobel and Leo Sorger
Franco Viviani, Gianluca Costardi, and Pia Grassivaro Gallo; presented by Franco Viviani
  • One Death Too Many: Social Services Must Protect Children at Risk from Genital Mutilation in Ireland
Linda Massie
  • Ending Circumcision by Telling Our Individual Stories
Patricia Robinett
  • Isms and Schisms: Political Correctness and the Search for a Unifying Paradigm for Abolishing Circumcision in the United States
Georganne Chapin
  • Violating the U.S. Constitution
George C. Denniston
  • Government Subsidation Through Medicaid (USA) of Medically Unnecessary, Non-therapeutic Circumcision
Amber Craig, Dan Bollinger, and J. Steven Svoboda; presented by Amber Craig
  • Activism and the Movement for Genuine Gender Equality
J. Steven Svoboda
  • Informed Consent Obstacles to Presentation of Claim to a Jury
Zenas Baer
David J. Llewellyn
  • A Step Toward Prohibition: State Regulation of Infant Genital Surgeries
John V. Geisheker
  • Protecting Human Rights from the Trenches of the Courtroom
Charles A. Bonner
  • Legal Panel and Discussion
Zenas Baer, Charles A. Bonner, Georganne Chapin, John V. Geisheker, David J. Llewellyn, and J. Steven Svoboda; moderated by Peter J. Ball

Saturday, 4 September

Leonard B. Glick
Nansi Glick
  • Violations Against Children in the Name of Religion and Tradition: Is There a Way Out?
Yngve Hofvander
Sara Rashad
Baba Galleh Jallow
  • How to Change Blood Sacrifice Rituals While Honoring the World’s Wisdom About Children
Jeannine Parvati Baker

The proceedings are published in Bodily Integrity and the Politics of Circumcision: Culture, Controversy, and Change, edited by George C. Denniston, Frederick Mansfield Hodges, and Marilyn Fayre Milos, Springer, 2006.


National Organization of Circumcision Information Resource Centers and The Padua Working Group on FGM Department of General Psychology, University of Padua.

See also

External links


  1. a b c d e f REFweb Juris Doctor, Wikipedia. Retrieved 13 October 2021. (Also known as Doctor of Law or Doctor of Jurisprudence.)
  2. REFweb Master of Arts, Wikipedia. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  3. a b c d e REFweb Doctor of Medicine, Wikipedia. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  4. REFweb Master of Public Health or Master of Philosophy in Public Health, Wikipedia. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  5. a b c REFweb Doctor of Philosophy, Wikipedia. Retrieved 16 June 2021. (Also abbreviated as D.Phil.)
  6. REFweb Master of Laws, Wikipedia. Retrieved 13 October 2021. (Also M.L.; Latin: magister legum or legum magister.)
  7. a b REFweb Bachelor of Arts, Wikipedia. Retrieved 13 October 2021. (BA or AB; from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus.)
  8. REFweb Registered nurse, Wikipedia. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  9. REFweb Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, Wikipedia. Retrieved 13 October 2021. (Latin: medicinae baccalaureus, baccalaureus chirurgiae; abbreviated in many ways, most commonly MBBS, but also MB ChB, BMBS, MB BCh, MB BChir, and BM BCh.)
  10. REFweb Fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians, Wikipedia. Retrieved 14 October 2021.